The quality of cargo transportation, its cost and delivery time depend on the type of cargo, the mode of transport, containers, packaging, transportation conditions, loading and unloading operations, and the documents required for each group of goods in particular.
In logistics, the types of goods and their classification is determined by their loading method, the conditions of transportation, storage, weight, size, the degree of danger.
Types of cargo by loading methods
Products that are loaded into covered containers without packaging are called bulk cargo. These include sand, gravel, coal, grain, sugar, vegetables. For loading operations they use excavators, conveyors or special loaders.
Liquid goods include food (milk, oil), chemical (alcohol), and oil products. Transportation is carried out in tanks, bunkers, special containers. For loading and unloading they use pumping units. When moving food products, special attention is paid to compliance with the sanitary standards and temperature regimes.
Break bulk cargo is the cargo that is transported unpackaged but in large quantities, or packaged goods with indication of their weight and the number of places occupied within the container.
Classification by storage and transportation conditions
This category includes standard and specific cargo. The latter include oversized, heavy, long, perishable, and live. They require a more thorough analysis which can determine the route, the mode of transport, the need for additional permits, and close monitoring of such cargo at all stages of transportation.
Oversized – a group of goods exceeding standard parameters in height, length, width. Heavy loads are those that weigh more than 500 kg. For example, road construction equipment, drilling rigs, boiler equipment. Long loads – their length extends beyond the side of the vehicle by more than 2 meters. Perishable – the goods that require certain temperature regimes, particular humidity levels and so on (food, medicines, biomaterials). They are transported frozen or chilled in refrigerated trucks. Live cargo includes animals, birds, fish, insects, which require special type of transport.
Dangerous goods, if they do not comply with the standards, can harm the environment, living organisms, and human health. The share of this category in the world cargo turnover is quite high and amounts to about 50%. These are mainly petroleum and petrochemical products. In total, according to GOST, there are nine groups of dangerous goods: explosive, oxidizing, radioactive, corrosive, caustic substances, flammable (solid and liquid) substances, gases, toxins. Transportation of such goods is strictly regulated by the rules and regulations developed by the UN Committee of Experts. Special markings, colors are required on outer packaging of dangerous goods, and hazard class is to be displayed as well. The transporting vehicles should have special signage and labels for hazardous cargo.
Types of goods by industry
This classification divides goods by industry: construction goods (brick, gravel, sand, cement, concrete slabs), industrial (products manufactured by industrial enterprises), municipal (household waste, snow, garbage), trade (goods that are delivered from a warehouse or production to commercial enterprises), and agricultural goods.
Products within a vehicle can take up space with varying efficiency. The load can be light, but voluminous, or it can be heavy, but take up less space than the light one. They have four classes of carrying capacity, and each one of them has a correction factor. It is calculated using the formula: the mass of the cargo divided by its volume. The carrying capacity determines the cost of transportation.
It is worth mentioning valuable goods here (precious metals, rare animals, plants, works of art, securities, museum exhibits). They require development of a safe route, special conditions, and sometimes – the escort to ensure complete safety.
International transportation of oversized cargo, dangerous, temperature controlled and valuable goods should be carried out by specialists with hands-on experience and profound knowledge of various legal frameworks. MW-Trade has been successfully shipping goods all over the world for over ten years. Experts are always ready to advice, offer the best transport solutions and answer all of your questions. The estimated cost can be calculated with the help of our online calculator. Let us transport your cargo!